What is Speculative Fiction?

Often described as the ‘What if?’ genre, speculative fiction (spec-fic or SF) describes any work where the writer makes conjectures about a fictional scenario. Look more critically and the matter isn’t so straightforward. As a definition, this one is so loose that it can be stretched to include all fiction. At the very least it fails to capture the particular flavour of the genre.

To find the essence of speculative fiction, we need to look at the nature of the conjecture being made.

Speculative fiction is distinguished by being based on unusual ideas and elevated imagination.

Let’s have an example. In literary fiction, a character might be a missionary in an exotic location, but in speculative fiction he’d be a missionary on another planet with an attentive congregation of non-humanoid aliens (thus does Heart of Darkness become Michel Faber’s The Book of Strange New Things).

What I love about speculative fiction is the very thing that makes a watertight definition impossible. Not only is it a genre in itself, but it forms a sort of umbrella over many other genres.

Wherever your writing sits, turn the dial marked ‘Big Ideas’ from quotidian to extreme and you’ve got speculative fiction. Conversely, make the idea behind your story more mundane and you’re moving away from speculative fiction territory.

Having arrived at a working definition, let’s look at some of the domains in which speculative fiction authors tend to speculate. Don’t imagine that this will be an exhaustive tour, because each domain can be further broken down into many sub-genres, which I’ll only touch upon here.


Fantasy is special because it’s the purest form of speculative fiction you can get; by definition any work of fantasy is highly conjectural. Heck, most true fantasy stories are so speculative that they aren’t even set in our world. Think Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials series, Runemarks by Joanne Harris and Terry Pratchett’s Discworld series to name but three. Wherever you find yourself when you read any of these, you’re definitely not in Kansas now, Toto.

Science Fiction

Partly because of the shared ‘SF’ acronym and partly because one genre arguably gave birth to the other, science fiction and speculative fiction are sometimes seen as synonymous. However, that ain’t necessarily so. I’d argue that while The Martian by Andy Weir is definitely a work of science fiction, it isn’t one of speculative fiction because at heart it’s a straightforward survival story.


When you write horror, you’re automatically moving into the ethereal and strange, which brings you closer to speculative fiction. Although many horror books are highly speculative (like Clive Barker’s outrageous novella The Hellbound Heart), you’ll also find a lot that are distinctly of this world. Body horror may be nasty, but it’s ultimately quite mundane.


Though making up a smaller section of the speculative fiction genre, historical fiction is fertile territory for the speculative fiction writer because of the almost limitless potential for rewriting events. This can be done on a fairly realistic level, as in Philip K Dick’s The Man in the High Castle, which depicts an alternative reality where Japan and Germany won World War II. Or there are even more fantastical scenarios to be had, like the classic Merlin trilogy by Mary Stewart, a re-telling of the King Arthur legend from the point of view of the aged, half-demented wizard.

A word about sub-genres

There’s a potentially limitless number of sub-genres within speculative fiction, which makes this a topic highly deserving of its own article. I’ve touched on some of them already: The Man in the High Castle is an example of alternate history, and The Book of Strange New Things is an apocalyptic tale. Sometimes, as in science fantasy, main speculative fiction genres intersect.

Is it really important to classify my writing?

This is a question asked by many authors throughout the history of fiction, and my answer has to be a qualified yes. The nature of book marketing being what it is, you’re going to find it much easier to promote your work if you have a clear idea of which genre (and preferably sub-genre) it occupies.

Some writers like to get to know their target genre inside out before they even start writing, but it’s okay if this approach isn’t for you. You always have the option to write the thing first, then find a good editor to help you decide where your book belongs. Anybody know one?


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By | 2017-09-05T13:43:01+00:00 June 16th, 2016|Novel Writing|2 Comments

About the Author:

Lynn is a main contributor to the Liminal Pages blog. She studied science while writing fiction and poetry in her spare time. She's carried out research into trees, grasses, lichens and the effects of prehistoric climate change, all of which turned out to be far weirder than anything she could possibly invent. She has an MA in creative writing, and worked as a writing mentor at a large London university. These days, she runs her own content writing business, Lexis Writing.


  1. Carolyn McBride June 19, 2016 at 7:42 pm - Reply

    I rather enjoyed this piece. I write speculative fiction, and more than once I’ve come across folks who try to nail down the genre, but none have made it as clear as you have. Now if I could just find where the spec fic readers are hanging out, I’d be laughing!

    • Sophie Playle June 20, 2016 at 8:54 am - Reply

      Hi Carolyn. Glad you enjoyed the post and found it useful! Yes, I’d also love to join a community of spec-fic readers! I tried searching for groups on Facebook but I haven’t found a decent one. There are quite a few people on Twitter. Perhaps GoodReads would be the place to be? I must admit, I’m not very active on GoodReads at the moment. Might be worth considering!

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